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Motoko Cheat Sheet

Nov 14, 2022

I'm making this for my own reference, but I hope it helps you out as well!

Language Features

Variables

// Constant variable
let foo = "";
// Stable constant
stable let foo = "";

// Mutable variable
var foo = "";
// Stable mutable
stable var foo = "";

Conditionals

let foo = if (true) 1 else 2;

let mut foo2: Nat = 0;

if (true) {
  foo2 := 1;
} else {
  foo2 := 2;
};

// Do block - not always practical but worth knowing
let option = ?3;
let foo3 = do ? {
    let unpackedOption = option!; // the `!` operator "unpacks" the option and gets you the value inside. If the option is null, the entire do ? {} block evaluates to null
    Nat.toText unpackedOption
}

Assignment

var foo = "";
foo := "new text";

Loops

let items = ["fizz", "buzz", "fizzBuzz"];

for(val in items.vals()){
    Debug.print(debug_show val);
}

Imports

// base library
import Nat "mo:base/Nat";
// canister import
import Whoami "canister:whoami";
// package import
import IC "mo:management-canister";

Management Canister

type IC = actor {
    http_request : Types.CanisterHttpRequestArgs -> async Types.CanisterHttpResponsePayload;
};

let ic : IC = actor ("aaaaa-aa");
import Principal "mo:base/Principal";
import IC "mo:management-canister";


actor Example {

  type CanisterStatus = {
    cycles : Nat;
    idle_cycles_burned_per_day : Nat;
    memory_size : Nat;
    module_hash : ?[Nat8];
    settings : {

    freezing_threshold : Nat;
    controllers : [Principal];
    memory_allocation : Nat;
    compute_allocation : Nat;

    };
    status : {#running; #stopped; #stopping}
  };

  public func status () : async  CanisterStatus {
    let management: IC.Self = actor("aaaaa-aa");
    await management.canister_status({canister_id = Principal.fromActor(Example)});
  };
}

For Vessel dependencies, see Vessel

Data Structures

Array

// init
let arr = [1,2,3];

Iter

import Iter "mo:base/Iter";

let iter = Iter.make();
let fromArr = Iter.fromArray(arr);

let arr2 = Iter.toArray(fromArr);

Buffer

import Buffer "mo:base/Buffer";

let arr = [1,2,3];
let buf = Buffer.Buffer<T>(size);

for(x in arr.vals()){
    buf.add(x);
}

let newArr = buf.toArray();

Trie

TrieMap

HashMap

Vessel

// dfx.json
{
  "defaults": {
    "build": {
      "args": "",
      "packtool": "vessel sources"
    }
  }
}
// package-set.dhall
let upstream =
  https://github.com/dfinity/vessel-package-set/releases/download/mo-0.6.21-20220215/package-set.dhall sha256:b46f30e811fe5085741be01e126629c2a55d4c3d6ebf49408fb3b4a98e37589b

let packages = [
  { name = "management-canister"
  , repo = "https://github.com/krpeacock/ic-management-canister"
  , version = "main"
  , dependencies = [ "base" ]
  },
]

in  upstream # packages
// vessell.dhall
{ dependencies = [ "base", "management-canister" ], compiler = Some "0.6.21" }

© Kyle Peacock 2022